MITHRAISM FOR TODAY…Mithras Subduing the Bull…The Tauroc…

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In this scene, Sol Invictus, the Unconquered Sun, kneels in submission to Mithras. In some scenes his hands are held out in supplication, and Mithras is crowing him with a Phrygian Cap. The exact meaning of this scene is unclear, but it may show that Mithras has gained spiritual pre-eminence from successfully completing his Earthly tasks.
People seeking to be involved with Mithraism in the modern world have faced a real dilemma. How do isolated individuals approach a religion that was focused on group community, ritual and initiations? The answer to this is not an easy one, and it is the reason why this website has made a clear distinction between "Mithraism for Today" and "Reconstructed Ancient Mithraism". A rebirth of Mithraism means dealing with a challenge that did not exist in the ancient world. In antiquity, Mithraism was passed throughout the Roman world by the Legions as an organized force. Today, individuals interested in Mithraism are widely scattered and have little, if any, recourse to group practice or worship. It is not unreasonable to expect that if Mithraism as a living religion can be maintained by individuals, it will eventually grow again into group practice as it becomes more popular. This by necessity means maintaining Mithraism for a period of years as a personal path – unlike what was practiced in the ancient world. Is a solitary Mithraist still a Mithraist? Our answer is yes, provided that those who practice a modern path of Mithraism out of necessity do not confuse such practice with ancient Mithraism. Many pagan religious paths have been revived in the modern world over the past few decades. Experience has shown that real problems occur only when accurate history is lost, and modern adaptations are confused with ancient tradition. The goal of Modern Mithraism is to keep Mithraism alive, not to replace the ancient Mysteries with something new. If individuals can keep themselves involved and make Mithraism interesting to others – it will make a reconstruction of the organized Mithraic Mysteries that much more possible.

Modern vs. Ancient Practice

As an organization, Mithraeum hopes both to encourage Modern Mithraism, and ensure that modern rites do not interfere with a rebirth of the ancient Mysteries as accurately as possible. In our view is a Modern Mithraic practice necessary for the survival of Mithraism as a path? Yes. In our view, is Modern Mithraic practice "just as important" as the ancient Mysteries? No, but that doesn’t mean that modern rites are completely invalid either. If you seek Mithras with a sincere heart and a desire for knowledge, you will find him even if alone. It is our great hope that Modern Mithraism will become a valuable tool for the rebuilding of accurate Mithraic Mysteries, not a watered-down modern replacement for them. Our goal is to make Mithras and his Light more available to the modern individual – even as we instill a desire for accurate scholarship and reconstruction. The key to making Modern Mithraism a useful aid to rebuilding the Mysteries is clear labeling. Modern rites, rituals, festivals, prayers, ideas and writings should be clearly labeled as such. We must not confuse modern efforts with history today if we hope to rebuild something that is historically accurate in the future.
THE DECLARATION OF MITHRAIC RELIGION

A path of Modern, solitary Mithraism could conceivably take a variety of forms. The guidelines presented here are only one possible path. Mithraeum as a service organization invites individuals to explore other practices, and to share them! Seven Aspects of Mithraic Worship: As a bare-bones approach to personal Mithraic worship, Mithraeum offers the following seven things as a way to become involved with Mithraism on a solitary basis:
I. Sacred Space – we advocate setting aside a a separate place for Mithraic prayer, ritual, contemplation, and learning. In ancient times the Mithraeum temple was the place in which this was done – but an individual alone must adapt.
II. Imagery/Art – we have found that it is helpful to have Mithraic iconography present during rites and meditation to help create a setting more like that experienced by ancient Mithraists. Ancient Mithraea were rich in Mithraic art, and there can be no doubt that this art was considered important.
Ancient Mithraeum temples were rich in sacred art and imagery. The floors of the Mithraeum were often decorated in mosaic tiles, the side walls of the Mithraeum were painted with scenes from the life of Mithras, the front altar area was where the sacred Bull Slaying image was kept, and the roof of the Mithraeum was painted with an image of the night sky. Altars were carved with inscriptions and art, and there were often a variety of statues present in the temple as well. Even the ritual tools and service wear for the Sacred Meal were decorated with sacred art!All these things helped to make the Mithraeum a unique sacred atmosphere. Mithraists were constantly reminded about the deity through which they were united. The presence of imagery was strong confirmation that Mithraism was about Mithras – and that focus on him, (rather than say, the participants) was vital.It is, of course, possible to worship Mithras without sacred images being present. The Roman Legionary in the field, for instance, far from a Mithraeum, would of course be able to commune with Mithras through prayer and offerings at any time. Yet it cannot be denied that sacred art was important to the ancient experience and should not be ignored today.

Modern Imagery
The modern Mithraist has wonderful tools available for creating Mithraic imagery. The quickest and easiest are the computer printer or a photo copier. A quick web search for "Mithras" in the Images search engine at www.google.com will yield a wide variety of Mithraic images. These can easily be printed for personal use. If a picture from a website is too small, it can usually be enlarged on a photocopier (or color photocopier, depending on the image.)

A usual first-step toward decorating your sacred space with Mithraic art would be to put a picture of the Tauroctony over the Mithraic Altar. The Bull Slaying scene is the central icon of Mithraism, and it would be visible over the main altar in almost any Mithraeum.Other images are nice, but not as necessary. A solitary practitioner may not have wall space near the altar for putting up other Mithraic images. If you do have the space, there are a few other "common" Mithraic scenes that can be found on the web or copied from any of a variety of books including:

Mithras Born from the Rock – The scene of a young Mithras emerging from solid rock, holding a torch (symbol of Light and spiritual power) and the knife which he will use to slay the bull.
Mithras Hunting – This scene was found most often in Eastern Mithraea. In this scene Mithras is on horseback hunting animals with a bow. Similar scenes were often found in ancient Persian art.
Mithras Obtaining Water from a Rock – This scene shows Mithras shooting an arrow at a rock, and water coming out of the rock where the arrow has hit. This miracle scene may be a reaffirmation of Mithras being able to bring forth Spirit within Matter.
Mithras Wrestling the Bull – Probably the first of the Mithras/Bull images. In this scene Mithras is wrestling the bull to subdue it. (This scene can be seen in a variety of ways – as a symbol of Spirit overcoming Matter, the Mind overcoming base emotions, etc.)
Mithras Dragging the Bull – In this image Mithras has successfully wrestled the bull, and is dragging it into a cave. This scene may represent the fact that Mithras first sought to control the Bull before finally being forced to sacrifice it.
Mithras Subduing the Bull – The first part of the Tauroctony scene. In this image, Mithras has jumped upon the back of the Bull, forced it to the ground, and has raised it’s head backward. The knife is poised to strike, but has not struck yet – and Mithras is still looking at the bull.
The Tauroctony – In this scene, Mithras is in the act of sacrificing the Bull. The knife has been plunged into the Bull’s shoulder, and Mithras is now looking away from the Bull. A rich bounty, usually in the form of sprouting grain, is coming from the knife wound and the tip of the Bull’s tail. At the bottom of the scene a Snake, Scorpion, Raven and Dog are attacking/receiving bounty from the Bull. Often Sol (The Sun) and Luna (The Moon) are shown in the upper corners of the Scene. The image is framed on the left and right by the torchbearers, Cautes and Cautopates.
Mithras Triumphant – In this scene Mithras is shown standing over the dead bull, the knife in one hand, and a globe (symbol of world domination) in the other. Mithras is flanked by Sol and Luna. All three figures seem to be facing in the same direction, as if looking toward the future.
Sol Invictus Kneels Before Mithras – In this scene, Sol Invictus, the Unconquered Sun, kneels in submission to Mithras. In some scenes his hands are held out in supplication, and Mithras is crowing him with a Phrygian Cap. The exact meaning of this scene is unclear, but it may show that Mithras has gained spiritual pre-eminence from successfully completing his Earthly tasks.
Sol and Mithras Feasting – In this scene, the bounty of the Bull is being shared. Mithras and Sol are feasting upon the Bull, and the skin of the bull is stretched out over a table. In some scenes this is done as a Roman feast, with other participants, (such as a Roman soldier) present. It is known that Mithraic rituals included a sacred feast, and this image is likely associated with it.
The Ascension – In this scene Mithras has completed his Earthly duties, and now returns to the heavens with Sol Invictus. In some images they ride together in the Chariot of the Sun, in others Mithras runs beside the chariot.
Ancient Mithraea were decorated with some or all of these scenes, depending on how much the Mithraic group could afford, and what area of the world the Mithraeum was in. Some imagery was different as seen through local tradition and culture. The Mithraea also had a wide variety of other images not mentioned here, such as imagery of other deities, and other less common Mithraic symbols.

Producing Mithraic Art

Ancient Mithraic art was produced in a variety of mediums, most usually involving painting, mosaic and sculpture. Almost any art form can be used to produce original Mithraic art if you have the skills. Art was often dedicated to the Mithraeum as an offering by individual members of the group, and this is a good way to do something on behalf of the God even if you practice alone.Painting, drawing, sculpture, mosaic, carving, and even etching images are good possibilities for Mithraic art. Reproducing the traditional images of Mithraism can be a way to feel more involved with the spiritual process, and also make your practice more enjoyable.

III. Ritual Tools and Items – ancient Mithraeum temple sites contained many Mithraic items that were used in rites and rituals. We recommend some here as being an important physical aid to personal practice.A Mithraic Astral Temple
This meditation is an inner working to build an Astral Mithraic temple which may be used to contact Mithras and to participate in Mithraic worship on a spiritual level. Astral Temple work is an aspect of modern occultism that is easily used for Mithraic purposes. This particular meditation and rite was used by a group that practiced together over the Internet in 1995 and 1996 as a means of "breaking ground" toward more active Mithraic practice. All participants did the rite at the same time on Sunday evening, 7PM EST. After the ritual and meditation notes were compared among the participants.Whether this rite is done in group format or alone, it can be an excellent way to contact Mithraic energies and to help bring forth contact with Mithras as a living deity.

PREPARATION:
Set up a temple space with as many of the aspects of a Mithraeum as possible.A rectangular space with a central aisle. An altar at one end with candles,
Incense and a Mithraic statue, image or symbol. A chalice of wine and a plate with bread should be on the altar. At least two chairs facing each other across the central space. Wear a Roman tunic if you’ve got one, or a robe or at least comfortable clothing if you don’t. Light or white garments
preferable.

PHYSICAL TEMPLE:
Once you’re prepared to begin and in a ritual frame of mind, proceed up the
central aisle to the altar. Light the candles, saying "May the Light of Mithras illuminate my mind and spirit." Light the incense, saying "May this place be purified in the name of Mithras." Carry the incense around the temple as a sign of purification. When you feel you’ve created a proper working atmosphere, sit in one of the chairs and allow yourself to relax. Take several deep breaths, and close your
eyes. If you have some personal routine of mental preparation for ritual work
do it now.

PATHWORKING:
Say a prayer to Mithras; "Mithras, Lord of Light and Mysteries, guide me safely to your temple within the Realm of Spirit." Now, with your eyes closed,
begin to enter the Inner realms by using a combination of visualization and a
deliberate projection of your own energies/consciousness. Try to see yourself, and feel yourself within this image. Here is the sequence to visualize, and to say out loud
to yourself if possible:

"I am standing in a shadowed place. Before me there is a portal, two double
doors of dark oak banded with iron. The top of the portal has a Classical
lintel with a symbol of the Sun. To either side of the doorway there are
marble pillars.

I make the Sign of Opening, and the doors swing outward. I step through the
Portal and enter the Inner Realms.

I find myself standing in a sun-lit place. I am on a cobblestone Roman road
which stretches straight before and behind me. To my right there is a fig
tree, its branches giving partial shade to the place where I stand. To my left is a Roman mile marker. All around me there are rolling hills and cultivated fields, a place of abundance and beauty. It is warm here but not hot… the sun is shining brightly but there is a cooling breeze that stirs the grains and grasses in the fields around me. I am wearing a traveler’s tunic, and leather sandals.
IV. Prayer/Meditation – it is well known that personal, informal prayer and meditation was done by individuals throughout the ancient world as a means of communing and communicating with deity. We believe this must have been a part of Mithraic life as well. Daily Salute to the Sun

A simple personal discipline of remembering the Eternal Sun three times daily. The purpose of this prayer is to develop personal spiritual responsibility and to infuse daily life with a rememberance of the Light.

To be said to the Sun in the Morning:
"Hail to thee, the Eternal Spiritual Sun, whose visible Symbol rises now in the Heavens. Hail unto thee from the Abodes of Morning."

To be said to the mid-day Sun:
"Hail to thee, Eternal Spritual Sun, whose visible Symbol stands at the height of the Heavens. Hail unto thee from the Abodes of Noontime."

To be said to the setting Sun:
"Hail to thee, Eternal Spritual Sun, whose visible Symbol sets now in the Heavens. Hail unto thee from the Abodes of Evening."

(This Daily Salute is a modern adaptation from a Western Magical text)

‘A Song to Mithras’

From Rudyard Kipling’s Puck of Pook’s Hill.
(In Songs from Books and verse this poem is subtitled ‘Hymn of the XXX Legion: Circa A.D. 350’.) In which the spirit of Mithraism can seen. This poem has proven to be a wonderful prayer, as well as a reading for meditation or ritual liturgy.

Mithras, God of the Morning, our trumpets waken the wall!
‘Rome is above the Nations, but Thou art over all’
Now as the names are answered, and the guards are marched away,
Mithras, also a solider, give us strenghth for the day!

Mithras, God of the Noontide, the heather swims in the heat,
Our helmets scorch our foreheads; our sandals burn our feet,
Now in the ungrit hour; now ere we blink and drowse,
Mithras also a solider, keep us true to our vows!

Mithras, God of the Sunset, low on the Western main,
Thou descending immortal, immortal to rise again!
Now when the watch is ended, now when the wine is drawn
Mithras also a solider, keep us pure till the dawn!

Mithras, God of Midnight, here where the great bull dies,
Look on thy children in darkness. Oh take our sacrifice!
Many roads Thou has fashioned: all of them lead to the Light,
Mithras, also a solider, teach us to die aright.

A brief Mithraic prayer/visualization

Take a few moments by yourself. Stand straight (at "attention") with your arms at your sides, and your eyes closed. Let your body posture straighten naturally, and rise to your full height without going too stiff or tightening up so much that you are uncomfortable. Let yourself both relax and focus inward. (With a bit of experience this can be done quickly, so that the meditation may be done anytime at need.)

I. Visualize yourself wearing Roman armor, a Roman helmet, and greaves. Put energy into this image, building a "spiritual armor" to help strengthen your natural energy field. Say to yourself (either out loud or in your mind):

"I wear the Armor of Mithras and the Light. I am shielded from all that is harmful."

Spend a few moments pouring energy into this image, building an aura of power around yourself.

II. Keeping the image of the armor in your mind, now see yourself holding a Roman sword and shield. Feel the weapons in your hands, spiritual tools that you have been empowered to use not only for purposes of your own, but also on behalf of Mithras and the Light. Say to yourself (either out loud or in your mind):

"I wield the weapons of Mithras and the Light. No darkness may stand against against them."

Spend a few moments pouring energy into this image. Feel yourself holding the weapons, and see them as tools of Mind and Spirit which enable you to act positively and decisively.

III. Even as you retain the two previous images, now see yourself standing in a beam of bright light. The light comes down over you like a spotlight, leaving you standing in a pillar of illumination. Feel the light entering your body and spirit, and becoming a Roman battle crown or wreath over your head. Say to yourself (either out loud or in your mind):

"I stand in the Light of Mithras. In the Light I am invincible, for Mithras is my crown."

Hold the three images together for a few moments, so that you can feel the three images surrounding you and filling you with strength and renewed purpose. Gently release the images even as you recognize the energies and the ideas behind them will stay with you, and continue with your day.

(This meditation is a modern work by Marcus Cassius Julianus)
V. Rituals – ancient Mithraism is known to have encompassed a variety of group rituals, including both those of worship and initiation. While we do not advocate self initiation rites, we do recognize that formal ritual is an important part of Mithraic experience. A Mithraic Astral Temple

This meditation is an inner working to build an Astral Mithraic temple which may be used to contact Mithras and to participate in Mithraic worship on a spiritual level. Astral Temple work is an aspect of modern occultism that is easily used for Mithraic purposes. This particular meditation and rite was used by a group that practiced together over the Internet in 1995 and 1996 as a means of "breaking ground" toward more active Mithraic practice. All participants did the rite at the same time on Sunday evening, 7PM EST. After the ritual and meditation notes were compared among the participants.

Whether this rite is done in group format or alone, it can be an excellent way to contact Mithraic energies and to help bring forth contact with Mithras as a living deity.

PREPARATION:

Set up a temple space with as many of the aspects of a Mithraeum as possible. A rectangular space with a central aisle. An altar at one end with candles, Incense and a Mithraic statue, image or symbol. A chalice of wine and a plate with bread should be on the altar. At least two chairs facing each other across the central space. Wear a Roman tunic if you’ve got one, or a robe or at least comfortable clothing if you don’t. Light or white garments preferable.

PHYSICAL TEMPLE:
Once you’re prepared to begin and in a ritual frame of mind, proceed up the
central aisle to the altar. Light the candles, saying "May the Light of Mithras illuminate my mind and spirit." Light the incense, saying "May this place be purified in the name of Mithras." Carry the incense around the temple as a sign of purification. When you feel you’ve created a proper working atmosphere, sit in one of the chairs and allow yourself to relax. Take several deep breaths, and close your
eyes. If you have some personal routine of mental preparation for ritual work
do it now.

PATHWORKING:
Say a prayer to Mithras; "Mithras, Lord of Light and Mysteries, guide me safely to your temple within the Realm of Spirit." Now, with your eyes closed, begin to enter the Inner realms by using a combination of visualization and a deliberate projection of your own energies/consciousness. Try to see yourself, and feel yourself within this image. Here is the sequence to visualize, and to say out loud
to yourself if possible: "I am standing in a shadowed place. Before me there is a portal, two double doors of dark oak banded with iron. The top of the portal has a Classical lintel with a symbol of the Sun. To either side of the doorway there are marble pillars.I make the Sign of Opening, and the doors swing outward. I step through the

Portal and enter the Inner Realms.
I find myself standing in a sun-lit place. I am on a cobblestone Roman road which stretches straight before and behind me. To my right there is a fig tree, its branches giving partial shade to the place where I stand. To my left is a Roman mile marker. All around me there are rolling hills and cultivated fields, a place of abundance and beauty. It is warm here but not hot… the sun is shining brightly but there is a cooling breeze that stirs the grains and grasses in the fields around me. I am wearing a traveler’s tunic, and leather sandals.
I look at the cobblestone road before me, and see that it stretches out to a long, low hill which has neatly planted groves of fig trees. I begin to walk along the road. As I walk, I can feel and hear my sandals on the stones of the road as I step. There is a noonday sun above me, and a few puffy white clouds in the sky. I can hear the grasses swaying in the slight breeze, and welcome the warmth of the sun upon my face.
I continue along the road, and soon come close to the base of the hill. I see that the road goes up onto the hill and through the groves of trees. I climb the hill, the way is neither steep or difficult. Soon I crest the top and can see the way of the road. The road goes straight past a building, which is a single-storied rectangular temple, built of stone and with a peaked roof. It is a temple to Mithras, a Mithraeum. It is not very tall… it’s foundation seems to dug into the earth. I proceed along the road and come to the Mithraeum entrance.
THE TEMPLE
The doorway is recessed, and there are seven steps down to reach it. As I go down the steps the door swings partially open. I make a gesture of respect, and step inside. I find I am standing in a small anteroom. There is a small bench, and places for both cloaks to be left and robes of worship to be put on before entering the Mithraeum itself. The temple door is at the opposite of the room. There are a couple of small oil lamps burning. I close the door of the anteroom. I take off my traveling tunic and put on the robes of a worshipper, and then go to the doorway to the temple itself.
At the temple doorway, I make the sign of opening. The door opens and I step into the Mithraeum. I am standing at the end of a long central aisle. The Mithraeum is lit entirely by lamps… there are no windows. The stone walls are heavy, and the roof is as well – the place has the feeling of a cave. There are seven pillars along each side of the aisle, and on the other side of the pillars there are raised benches which face inward toward the central aisle. The aisle itself is done in mosaic tile… a ladder with seven sections, each section bearing the symbols of a Mithraic grade.

The walls of the temple are done in light stucco. On the stucco there are bright paintings of the story of the God Mithras. His birth from the Rock, dragging the Bull, feasting with Sol Invictus, etc. But beautiful as the paintings are they are not what draws the eye. At the end of the temple there is a main altar on a raised dais, in a semicircular alcove. Over the altar there is the Tauroctony scene, carved in white marble. There are hanging lamps of gold on either side, giving off a golden light.
I walk down the central aisle, and stop before the altar. I bow in respect and say: "Hail to thee Mithras! I come to thy abode as a Servant of the Light and as a Seeker of Wisdom. I beg thee to aid me in my desire to serve." I now reach toward the altar, take a pinch of incense from a silver dish, and drop it into the flames as an offering to Mithras. I then turn and walk to one of the side benches, and take my seat."
At this point a variety of inner workings may be done. If you are working with others, (possibly over the Internet as has been done before) a pre-decided rite or experience can be shared. In the original work which followed this format, the first several sessions consisted simply of attempts to "solidify" the temple through repeated experience. No matter what is done, there should be a symbolic meal with wine and bread, which the participant actually gets up and partakes of physically while still holding the Inner realm images. A person doing this Inner Temple Working alone may use the experience to speak directly with Mithras, or to gain inner knowledge about Mithraism as a spiritual path.
VI. Study and Learning – ancient Mithraism was organized around a grade system which expressed various aspects of spiritual knowledge. Learning and understanding were key elements to Mithraism, for only by gaining knowledge could one progress spiritually. We cannot stress enough the importance of dedicated scholarship to modern Mithraism.
Tips for further study:
I. Once you have the books that are in print, the next step is to look for the materials that are out of print. This can be difficult, but is always highly rewarding. The easiest way to find out of print Mithraic materials is to visit the library of a large university. Many out of print Mithraic works will be in the stacks, others will be in the computer book catalog and may be ordered from other libraries. There is also a vast treasure-trove of Mithraic materials in scholarly periodical journals, such as "The Journal of Roman Studies." Those can be found in the periodicals section of larger university libraries.
II. Astrology – a key to Mithraic symbolism. There is much that is astrological within Mithraism. The Planetary Deities and the Mithraic Grades are perhaps the most powerful examples, but there are other astrological and cosmological elements in Mithraism as well. Books on astrology can be very helpful in learning about the basic powers that are expressed through Mithraic symbolism. Books on ancient Greco-Roman astrology are particularly helpful.
III. Ceremonial Magic – a modern expression of the ancient Mysteries. While the Mithraic Mysteries were not exactly ceremonial magic themselves, they were certainly part of the religious/spiritual path that gave birth to ceremonial magic as it is known today. Organized rites to specific powers, using ritual tools and secret imagery are common to both. It has also been noticed that the Caballistic Tree of Life has definite similarities to the Mithraic Grades, as both show an interplay between the ancient Seven Planets and their powers.
IV. Fraternal Orders – organizational successors of the Mysteries. It cannot be proven that ancient Mithraism (or remnants of it) became fraternal orders such as Freemasonry and the Rosicrucians. However, the fraternal orders of today are certainly distant cousins of the ancient Mysteries, if not their direct children. Many organizational tips can be found in such modern groups. Joining one can be helpful, as can reading about them.
Final Note: No matter how you approach your study of Mithraism, Never stop learning, and never assume you know "the" answers. Even the initiates of the ancient Mysteries could find successive levels of meaning within their paths. One could never learn all their was to know, for the closer a path comes to deity the more there is to learn. Keep studying, keep progressing, and keep an open mind.

VII. Active Deeds – ancient Mithraism was a dynamic path. Worship and knowledge were important – but it is clear that in addition to spiritual learning a major goal of Mithraism was to improve the daily life of the individual, and the individual’s connection with deity. We feel that active deeds reinforce learning, and also manifest Mithraism in the world around us.

MODERN MITHRAIC TEXTS

As Mithraism is a growing and living religion once again, there will be an ever increasing body of articles, rites, rituals, and instructional materials available. While many growing Mithraic groups may not be able to share their materials publicly, we will try to build a compendium of modern information here.

On 130 hectares, we can observe the evolution of the art of gardens, illustrated by the Grand Parterre, the French garden designed by Le Notre, the Carp pond, the English garden, created under the first Empire, Diane garden and park with an area of 84 ha with straight alleys, the 1200 m long canal built under Henri IV and exotic essences.A garden planted with pine trees under Francis I, the Jardin Anglais took its current form under the First Empire when it was designed by architect Maximilien Hurtault. Its abundant vegetation lends romantic appeal to this garden, with each twist and turn leading visitors through exotic trees, sculptures and enchanting features such as fountains, a river and grottoes..When Napoleon, in 1810, decided to move in this garden, he came out of a long abandon. Covered with brushwood and full of serpents, it is entrusted to the architect Hurbault. With the help of English specialists, he adapted it in the tradition of the English gardens of the 18th century. Previously several gardens had succeeded to its site including the garden of the Pines of François 1st. Today, one can admire plane trees, redwoods, tulip trees, or bald cypresses, the oldest of which were planted under the Second Empire.

Posted on 2017-07-30 09:30:22

Tagged: , MITHRAISM , TODAY , Chateau , Fontainebleau , english , gardern , roman , cult , Mithras , Subduing , Bull , Tauroctony , Invictus , Sol.Invictus

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